In an independent assessment conducted at the University of California-Irvine, scientists evaluated the cradle-to-gate environmental impact of three different flow battery types. Iron-flow batteries tested to be the cleanest technology compared to batteries using vanadium and zinc. They’re also significantly less harmful to the environment over their entire life cycle compared to lithium-ion batteries
Key findings include
- Long-duration storage is now commonly viewed as having a delivery time of at least four hours, and the need for it is growing.
- Renewable energy self-consumption is seen as the most promising application for long-duration storage. But many other applications, from backup power to short-term operating reserves, were also cited, highlighting the potential for revenue stacking.
- The most promising technology for long-duration storage is flow batteries and the key criterion for selecting a given asset is cost, particularly the level of capital expenditure required.
Key findings include
- Smart storage purchasers are beginning to look beyond capital expense to more effective measures of lifetime cost and flexibility.
- Long-duration storage’s capability to seamlessly integrate energy and power applications.
- Long-duration storage’s ability to provide substantial flexibility in dealing with ever-changing regulatory and legislative landscapes, not to mention commercial volatility.
Key findings report
- ESS was part of a select group of CESA members to contribute to the ground-breaking study: Long-Duration Energy Storage for California’s Clean, Reliable Grid.
- California alone will need to increase its long-duration energy storage capacity by deploying 2-11 GW by 2030, and 45-55 GW by 2045.
- Significant procurement activities for long-duration storage need to happen before 2025 to ensure that California has a sufficient pipeline of long-duration storage projects to meet future grid needs.
- Regulatory changes could unlock the value of energy storage beyond 4-hours and
- The flexibility that comes with long-duration storage can strengthen a grid that is increasingly being populated with “use-limited” assets.
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